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Personality Assessment [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Discuss the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Recognize and describe common projective tests used in personality assessment   Roberto, Mikhail, and Nat are college friends and all want to be police officers. Roberto is quiet and shy, lacks self-confidence, and usually follows othe...

 

Introduction to Social Psychology [...]

  [caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] Trayvon Martin, 17, was shot to death at the hands of George Zimmerman, a volunteer neighborhood watchman, in 2012. Was his death the result of self-defense or racial bias? That question drew hundreds of people to rally on each side of this heated debate. (credit “signs”: modification of work by David Shankbo...

 

What Is Social Psychology? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define social psychology Describe situational versus dispositional influences on behavior Describe the fundamental attribution error   Social psychology examines how people affect one another, and it looks at the power of the situation. Social psychologists assert that an individual’s th...

 

Self-presentation [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe social roles and how they influence behavior Explain what social norms are and how they influence behavior Define script Describe the findings of Zimbardo’s Stanford prison experiment   As you’ve learned, social psychology is the study of how people affect one another’s tho...

 

Attitudes and Persuasion [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define attitude Describe how people’s attitudes are internally changed through cognitive dissonance Explain how people’s attitudes are externally changed through persuasion Describe the peripheral and central routes to persuasion   Social psychologists have documented how the power of...

 

Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the Asch effect Define conformity and types of social influence Describe Stanley Milgram’s experiment and its implications Define groupthink, social facilitation, and social loafing   In this section, we discuss additional ways in which people influence others. The topics of con...

 

Prejudice and Discrimination [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define and distinguish among prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination Provide examples of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination Explain why prejudice and discrimination exist   Human conflict can result in crime, war, and mass murder, such as genocide. Prejudice and discrimination o...

 

Aggression [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define aggression Define cyberbullying Describe the bystander effect   Throughout this chapter we have discussed how people interact and influence one another’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in both positive and negative ways. People can work together to achieve great things, such as...

 

Prosocial Behavior [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe altruism Describe conditions that influence the formation of relationships Identify what attracts people to each other Describe the triangular theory of love Explain social exchange theory in relationships   You’ve learned about many of the negative behaviors of social psychol...

 

Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology [...]

  [caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="975"] What does an office look like? For people who telecommute, their workspace may be adapted to fit their lifestyle. (credit: “left”: modification of work by Cory Zanker; credit “center”: modification of work by “@Saigon”/Flickr; credit “right”: modification of work by Daniel Lobo)[/caption] In Ju...

 

What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand the scope of study in the field of industrial and organizational psychology Describe the history of industrial and organizational psychology   In 2012, people who worked in the United States spent an average of 56.4 hours per week working (Bureau of Labor Statistics—U.S. Depart...

 

Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the aspects of employee selection Describe the kinds of job training Describe the approaches to and issues surrounding performance assessment   The branch of I-O psychology known as industrial psychology focuses on identifying and matching persons to tasks within an organization. T...

 

Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define organizational psychology Explain the measurement and determinants of job satisfaction Describe key elements of management and leadership Explain the significance of organizational culture   Organizational psychology is the second major branch of study and practice within the disci...

 

Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the field of human factors psychology Explain the role of human factors psychology in safety, productivity, and job satisfaction   Human factors psychology (or ergonomics, a term that is favored in Europe) is the third subject area within industrial and organizational psychology. T...

 

Introduction to Stress, Lifestyle, and Health [...]

[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] Exams are a stressful, but unavoidable, element of college life. (credit “left”: modification of work by Travis K. Mendoza; credit “center”: modification of work by “albertogp123”/Flickr; credit “right”: modification of work by Jeffrey Pioquinto, SJ)[/caption] Few would deny that today’s college students...

 

What Is Stress? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Differentiate between stimulus-based and response-based definitions of stress Define stress as a process Differentiate between good stress and bad stress Describe the early contributions of Walter Cannon and Hans Selye to the stress research field Understand the physiological basis of stress an...

 

Stressors [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe different types of possible stressors Explain the importance of life changes as potential stressors Describe the Social Readjustment Rating Scale Understand the concepts of job strain and job burnout   For an individual to experience stress, he must first encounter a potential st...

 

Stress and Illness [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the nature of psychophysiological disorders Describe the immune system and how stress impacts its functioning Describe how stress and emotional factors can lead to the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular disorders, asthma, and tension headaches   In this section, we will...

 

Regulation of Stress [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define coping and differentiate between problem-focused and emotion-focused coping Describe the importance of perceived control in our reactions to stress Explain how social support is vital in health and longevity   As we learned in the previous section, stress—especially if it is chron...

 

The Pursuit of Happiness [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define and discuss happiness, including its determinants Describe the field of positive psychology and identify the kinds of problems it addresses Explain the meaning of positive affect and discuss its importance in health outcomes Describe the concept of flow and its relationship to happiness a...

 

Introduction to Psychological Disorders [...]

[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] A wreath is laid in memoriam to victims of the Washington Navy Yard shooting. (credit: modification of work by D. Myles Cullen, US Department of Defense)[/caption] On Monday, September 16, 2013, a gunman killed 12 people as the workday began at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, DC. Aaron Alexis, 34, had a troubled h...

 

What Are Psychological Disorders? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand the problems inherent in defining the concept of psychological disorder Describe what is meant by harmful dysfunction Identify the formal criteria that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors must meet to be considered abnormal and, thus, symptomatic of a psychological disorder   A ps...

 

Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain why classification systems are necessary in the study of psychopathology Describe the basic features of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Discuss changes in the DSM over time, including criticisms of the current edition Identify which disord...

 

Perspectives on Psychological Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Discuss supernatural perspectives on the origin of psychological disorders, in their historical context Describe modern biological and psychological perspectives on the origin of psychological disorders Identify which disorders generally show the highest degree of heritability Describe the diath...

 

Anxiety Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Distinguish normal anxiety from pathological anxiety List and describe the major anxiety disorders, including their main features and prevalence Describe basic psychological and biological factors that are suspected to be important in the etiology of anxiety disorder   Everybody experience...

 

Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the main features and prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder Understand some of the factors in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder   Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders are a group of overlapping disorders th...

 

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the nature and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder Identify the risk factors associated with this disorder Understand the role of learning and cognitive factors in its development   Extremely stressful or traumatic events, such as combat, natural disasters, and terrorist att...

 

Mood Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Distinguish normal states of sadness and euphoria from states of depression and mania Describe the symptoms of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder Understand the differences between major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder, and identify two subtypes of depression D...

 

Schizophrenia [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Recognize the essential nature of schizophrenia, avoiding the misconception that it involves a split personality Categorize and describe the major symptoms of schizophrenia Understand the interplay between genetic, biological, and environmental factors that are associated with the development of ...

 

Dissociative Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the essential nature of dissociative disorders Identify and differentiate the symptoms of dissociative amnesia, depersonalization/ derealization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder Discuss the potential role of both social and psychological factors in dissociative identity disor...

 

Personality Disorders [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the nature of personality disorders and how they differ from other disorders List and distinguish between the three clusters of personality disorders Identify the basic features of borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder, and the factors that are important in ...

 

Disorders in Childhood [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the nature and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder Discuss the prevalence and factors that contribute to the development of these disorders   Most of the disorders we have discussed so far are typically diagnosed in adulthood, although ...