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Substance Use and Abuse [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders Identify the neurotransmitter systems affected by various categories of drugs Describe how different categories of drugs effect behavior and experience   While we all experience altered states of consciousness in the form of sl...

 

Other States of Consciousness [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define hypnosis and meditation Understand the similarities and differences of hypnosis and meditation   Our states of consciousness change as we move from wakefulness to sleep. We also alter our consciousness through the use of various psychoactive drugs. This final section will consider hy...

 

Introduction to Sensation and Perception [...]

[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] If you were standing in the midst of this street scene, you would be absorbing and processing numerous pieces of sensory input. (credit: modification of work by Cory Zanker)[/caption] Imagine standing on a city street corner. You might be struck by movement everywhere as cars and people go about their business, by the sou...

 

Sensation versus Perception [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Distinguish between sensation and perception Describe the concepts of absolute threshold and difference threshold Discuss the roles attention, motivation, and sensory adaptation play in perception   SENSATION What does it mean to sense something? Sensory receptors are specialized neurons ...

 

Waves and Wavelengths [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe important physical features of wave forms Show how physical properties of light waves are associated with perceptual experience Show how physical properties of sound waves are associated with perceptual experience   Visual and auditory stimuli both occur in the form of waves. Alth...

 

Vision [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the basic anatomy of the visual system Discuss how rods and cones contribute to different aspects of vision Describe how monocular and binocular cues are used in the perception of depth   The visual system constructs a mental representation of the world around us ([link]). This co...

 

Hearing [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the basic anatomy and function of the auditory system Explain how we encode and perceive pitch Discuss how we localize sound Our auditory system converts pressure waves into meaningful sounds. This translates into our ability to hear the sounds of nature, to appreciate the beauty of m...

 

The Other Senses [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the basic functions of the chemical senses Explain the basic functions of the somatosensory, nociceptive, and thermoceptive sensory systems Describe the basic functions of the vestibular, proprioceptive, and kinesthetic sensory systems   Vision and hearing have received an incredi...

 

Gestalt Principles of Perception [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the figure-ground relationship Define Gestalt principles of grouping Describe how perceptual set is influenced by an individual’s characteristics and mental state   In the early part of the 20th century, Max Wertheimer published a paper demonstrating that individuals perceived mo...

 

Introduction to Learning [...]

[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings are born knowing how to find the ocean and how to swim. Unlike the sea turtle, humans must learn how to swim (and surf). (credit “turtle”: modification of work by Becky Skiba, USFWS; credit “surfer”: modification of work by Mike Baird)[/caption] The summer sun shines brightly on a ...

 

What Is Learning? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain how learned behaviors are different from instincts and reflexes Define learning Recognize and define three basic forms of learning—classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning Birds build nests and migrate as winter approaches. Infants suckle at their moth...

 

Classical Conditioning [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain how classical conditioning occurs Summarize the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination   Does the name Ivan Pavlov ring a bell? Even if you are new to the study of psychology, chances are that you have heard of Pavlov and his f...

 

Operant Conditioning [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define operant conditioning Explain the difference between reinforcement and punishment Distinguish between reinforcement schedules   The previous section of this chapter focused on the type of associative learning known as classical conditioning. Remember that in classical conditioning, s...

 

Observational Learning (Modeling) [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define observational learning Discuss the steps in the modeling process Explain the prosocial and antisocial effects of observational learning   Previous sections of this chapter focused on classical and operant conditioning, which are forms of associative learning. In observational learni...

 

Introduction [...]

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="975"] Thinking is an important part of our human experience, and one that has captivated people for centuries. Today, it is one area of psychological study. The 19th-century Girl with a Book by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, the 20th-century sculpture The Thinker by August Rodin, and Shi Ke’s 10th-century painting Huike Th...

 

What Is Cognition? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe cognition Distinguish concepts and prototypes Explain the difference between natural and artificial concepts Imagine all of your thoughts as if they were physical entities, swirling rapidly inside your mind. How is it possible that the brain is able to move from one thought to the nex...

 

Language [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define language and demonstrate familiarity with the components of language Understand how the use of language develops Explain the relationship between language and thinking Language is a communication system that involves using words and systematic rules to organize those words to transmit i...

 

Problem Solving [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe problem solving strategies Define algorithm and heuristic Explain some common roadblocks to effective problem solving   People face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day. Sometimes these problems are straightforward: To double a recipe for pizza dough,...

 

What Are Intelligence and Creativity? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define intelligence Explain the triarchic theory of intelligence Identify the difference between intelligence theories Explain emotional intelligence   A four-and-a-half-year-old boy sits at the kitchen table with his father, who is reading a new story aloud to him. He turns the page to c...

 

Measures of Intelligence [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain how intelligence tests are developed Describe the history of the use of IQ tests Describe the purposes and benefits of intelligence testing   While you’re likely familiar with the term “IQ” and associate it with the idea of intelligence, what does IQ really mean? IQ stands fo...

 

The Source of Intelligence [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe how genetics and environment affect intelligence Explain the relationship between IQ scores and socioeconomic status Describe the difference between a learning disability and a developmental disorder   A young girl, born of teenage parents, lives with her grandmother in rural Miss...

 

Introduction to Memory [...]

[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] Photographs can trigger our memories and bring past experiences back to life. (credit: modification of work by Cory Zanker)[/caption] We may be top-notch learners, but if we don’t have a way to store what we’ve learned, what good is the knowledge we’ve gained? Take a few minutes to imagine what your day might be lik...

 

How Memory Functions [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Discuss the three basic functions of memory Describe the three stages of memory storage Describe and distinguish between procedural and declarative memory and semantic and episodic memory   Memory is an information processing system; therefore, we often compare it to a computer. Memory is ...

 

Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the brain functions involved in memory Recognize the roles of the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum   Are memories stored in just one part of the brain, or are they stored in many different parts of the brain? Karl Lashley began exploring this problem, about 100 years ago, by ma...

 

Problems with Memory [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Compare and contrast the two types of amnesia Discuss the unreliability of eyewitness testimony Discuss encoding failure Discuss the various memory errors Compare and contrast the two types of interference   You may pride yourself on your amazing ability to remember the birthdates and ag...

 

Ways to Enhance Memory [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Recognize and apply memory-enhancing strategies Recognize and apply effective study techniques   Most of us suffer from memory failures of one kind or another, and most of us would like to improve our memories so that we don’t forget where we put the car keys or, more importantly, the mat...

 

Introduction to Lifespan Development [...]

[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] How have you changed since childhood? How are you the same? What will your life be like 25 years from now? Fifty years from now? Lifespan development studies how you change as well as how you remain the same over the course of your life. (credit: modification of work by Giles Cook)[/caption] Welcome to the story of your l...

 

What Is Lifespan Development? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define and distinguish between the three domains of development: physical, cognitive and psychosocial Discuss the normative approach to development Understand the three major issues in development: continuity and discontinuity, one common course of development or many unique courses of developmen...

 

Lifespan Theories: Moral Development [...]

THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT A major task beginning in childhood and continuing into adolescence is discerning right from wrong. Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) extended upon the foundation that Piaget built regarding cognitive development. Kohlberg believed that moral development, like cognitive development, follows a series of stages. To develop this the...

 

Stages of Development [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the stages of prenatal development and recognize the importance of prenatal care Discuss physical, cognitive, and emotional development that occurs from infancy through childhood Discuss physical, cognitive, and emotional development that occurs during adolescence Discuss physical, cogn...

 

Death and Dying [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Discuss hospice care Describe the five stages of grief Define living will and DNR   Every story has an ending. Death marks the end of your life story ([link]). Our culture and individual backgrounds influence how we view death. In some cultures, death is accepted as a natural part of life ...

 

Introduction to Emotion and Motivation [...]

  [caption id="" align="alignnone" width="975"] Emotions can change in an instant, especially in response to an unexpected event. Surprise, fear, anger, and sadness are some immediate emotions that people experienced in the aftermath of the April 15, 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. What are emotions? What causes them? What motivated some bystanders to immediatel...

 

Motivation [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Understand that instincts, drive reduction, self-efficacy, and social motives have all been proposed as theories of motivation Explain the basic concepts associated with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs   Why do we do the things we do? What motivation...

 

Hunger and Eating [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe how hunger and eating are regulated Differentiate between levels of overweight and obesity and the associated health consequences Explain the health consequences resulting from anorexia and bulimia nervosa   Eating is essential for survival, and it is no surprise that a drive li...

 

Sexual Behavior [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand basic biological mechanisms regulating sexual behavior and motivation Appreciate the importance of Alfred Kinsey’s research on human sexuality Recognize the contributions that William Masters and Virginia Johnson’s research made to our understanding of the sexual response cycle De...

 

Emotion [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the major theories of emotion Describe the role that limbic structures play in emotional processing Understand the ubiquitous nature of producing and recognizing emotional expression   As we move through our daily lives, we experience a variety of emotions. An emotion is a subjecti...

 

Introduction to Personality [...]

  [caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="975"] What makes two individuals have different personalities? (credit: modification of work by Nicolas Alejandro)[/caption] Consider two brothers. One of these siblings will grow up to become a world leader. The other will struggle with alcohol and drugs, eventually spending time in jail. What about each of their p...

 

What Is Personality? [...]

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define personality Describe early theories about personality development   Personality refers to the long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. Our personality is what makes us unique individuals. Each person has an id...