Closed Vocabulary Analysis [...]

Most work on language differences by gender, including those above, have relied on closed-vocabulary analyses. These methods define categories of words a priori, based on common psychological or linguistic functions determined by researchers. The most popular implementation of closed-vocabulary analysis in psychology is LIWC, which automatically counts words belonging to over 60 predefined categories, such as positive emotion (e.g., “love”, “nice”, “sweet”), achievement (e.g., “earn”, “hero”, “win”), articles (e.g., “the”, “a”), and tentative words (e.g., “maybe”, “perhaps”, “guess”).

Closed-vocabulary methods depend on researchers at two levels: category definition and psychological labeling. Category definition refers to the creation of coherent groups of words, phrases, and other features (i.e., given a category, which words belong?). For example, word categories may be formed on the basis of a common syntactic function, such as first person singular words (e.g., “I”, “me”, “mine”) or prepositions (e.g., “in”, “on”, “with”), or by semantic content (e.g., positive emotion words such as “happy”, “joyful”, “excited”). (Source)

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