ds106 [...]

ds106 began life as Digital Studies 106, an undergraduate course in digital storytelling at the University of Mary Washington. In Spring 2011, Jim Groom and Martha Burtis opened the course to non-credit participants worldwide. More than 200 open participants were a part of this first open iteration.

Key features of the open structure were the use of an assignment bank which allowed participants to create, rate, and complete assignments, and the use of an aggregator to pull in work from participant sites.

Eventually, courses built on the ds106 model were operating simultaneously at several institutions.

While the course is no longer listed in the UMW catalog, in fall 2013, an instance of ds106 was created without an instructor. Later, ds106 transitioned from “course to community”.

Other offshoots include ds106 radio, created in February 2011 by Grant Potter, and ds106 TV(now defunct)


DS106 site[http://ds106.us/ html]

DS106 Radio[http://ds106rad.io/ html]

2011 Presentation on DS106 open course by Jim Groom and Martha Burtis[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtQwf3YAXH0 video]

 

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schema theory [...]

The term schema was coined by Jean Piaget.  Richard Anderson described how the concept applied to language comprehension in 1977[https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/17946/ctrstreadtechrepv01977i00050_opt.pdf?sequence=1 pdf]

Schema (in the context of communication or language learning) refers to an underlying concept that guides and shapes an interaction.  For example, if you tell someone that you are going to go to a movie, he or she probably has a schema of the process something like this:

  1. Arrive at theater
  2. Go to window
  3. Tell box office worker what film you want to see and when
  4. If seats are available, pay for tickets
  5. Enter theater
  6. Go to concession stand
  7. etc.

This schema serves as a template for the interaction.

Schemata are sometimes quite culturally dependent.  For example, the interaction “getting a cup of coffee” might trigger very different expectations to someone raised in the USA and Italy.

 

 

 

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Templated Self [...]

Coined by Amber Case, the term “templated self”  describes how the affordances and defaults of systems affect online expressions of identity.

A self or identity that is produced through various participation architectures, the act of producing a virtual or digital representation of self by filling out a user interface with personal information

For example, the design of the facebook profile expresses one’s identity as a combination of where you live, where you work, where you were educated, and what you like.  Audrey Watters describes how software such as learning management systems, although not explicitly social, can have some of the same identity templating effects[http://hackeducation.com/2014/07/22/reclaim-your-domain-hackathon/ cite]


see also schema theory

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Black Box Society [...]

Term coined by Frank Pasquale to describe a society where intellectual property laws make the algorithms responsible for important individual and societal decisions opaque  — not subject to study, review, or transparency.  Pasquale has written a book with the same title .

Notable examples of opaque algorithms include Google PageRank and the algorithms responsible for prioritizing an individual’s Facebook feed[https://medium.com/message/how-facebook-s-algorithm-suppresses-content-diversity-modestly-how-the-newsfeed-rules-the-clicks-b5f8a4bb7bab#.xom3d6wpz cite]


The term is derived in part from the use of “black box” to describe a component the inner workings of which are not evident.  The Oxford English Dictionary notes this usage as early as 1949.

Bell Syst. Techn. Jrnl. 28 367   In principle, one needs no knowledge of the physics of the transistor in order to treat it circuitwise; any ‘black box’ with the same electrical behavior at its terminals would act in the same way.

 

Video of a Pasquale talk on the concept at the Harvard Berkman Center[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_PFhJrPxoU YouTube]

 

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Baumol’s Cost Disease [...]

Named for co-author William Baumol, the term refers to an economic phenomenon in which wages rise in certain sectors despite no gains in productivity.

Baumol and co-author William Bowen originally considered the economics of the performing arts and noted that the production of Beethoven string quartets was not amenable to productivity improvements. Producing a Beethoven string quartet takes four musicians a certain amount of time, and improvements in technology won’t change this.  Therefore, rising wages in the sector are not linked to productivity gains.

Baumol later extended the notion to sectors such as health care and education, where, for example, output is measured in Carnegie Units and credit hours, both of which have traditionally used a time based definition.


The first chapter of Baumol’s 2012 book, The Cost Disease, is available online from Yale University Press[http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/excerpts/Baumol_excerpt.pdf pdf]

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How to Use Wikity [...]

Wikity is meant to be used more like a wiki than a blog.

You can do most of you formatting in Wikity with the WordPress editor, but there are some very important exceptions. See Wikity Syntax

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Wikity Syntax [...]

Most formatting in Wikity is done with the WordPress editor. You can add pictures, indent blockquotes, bullet lists, and soon (if we can figure out how to do it safely) embed content from places like YouTube.

However there are a few differences in Wikity syntax, especially around linking, and these differences are crucial to understand. If you don’t follow the special Wikity method of linking, your content will not be easily reusable by others and may even break our federated web. So read up and follow these simple rules.

  • Use Double Brackets for Wikilinks
  • Don’t Put External Links in Paragraphs
  • Use Cite Keyword for External Footnoting
  • Use Four Dashes to Create an Annotations Section

Use Double Brackets for Wikilinks

Link to other pages on your own site and other Wikity sites by using the standard wiki syntax like so:

Use Brackets

To make a new page, the easiest way is to make a link to the non-existent page and click it. This will prompt you to create a new page with that name.

It is really important that you link to other wiki pages in this way, and not by using traditional hyperlinks. Hyperlinks will break fork-ability. Breaking forkability is bad.

Don’t Put External Links Inside Paragraphs

This is less important than than the wiki link advice, but still important. When people browse wiki, the assumption is that links internal to paragraphs, like this one to Free To All, link to other wiki pages. This is an established wiki style. Browse Wikipedia for a bit and you will see what we mean. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Contract_with_God wikipedia]

Wikipedia style actually doesn’t allow any external links until the references section. We’ve come up with a compromise. If you really need to link to something external that is referenced in a paragraph, link to it at the end using Single Bracket Syntax. Here’s an example.

source htm

Here’s what that would look like in context.

Screenshot 2015-12-05 at 6

That syntax is a left bracket, a URL, and then a single keyword followed by a right bracket. You can use the keyword however you like, but it should be a single word. Since the paragraph preceding it generally explains the context, and a hover shows the destination, we often use the keyword to indicate what sort of resource it goes to — a pdf, an HTML document, a Google Books citation. But if you want to link it as (bavatuesdays), knock yourself out.

Use Cite Keyword for External Footnoting

Sometimes you may want to get an external reference closer to a clause, for instance when citing a disputable fact. Here’s an example of how to do that.

Screenshot 2015-12-06 at 6

Note the style here is the same as the single bracket external link syntax, but here we’ve used the keyword “cite”. Using the cite keyword instead of something like html, pdf, or bavatuesdays creates a little degree symbol superscript. This functions semantically as a footnote, signalling that support for this statement can be found by clicking the degree symbol, but it’s not necessary to understanding.

Here’s what that looks like in practice:

Screenshot 2015-12-06 at 6

Use Four Dashes to Create Annotations Section

Wikity pages, by convention, are split into two sections. The first is the “article” — a tight treatment of a single idea or subject. The article should be relatively self-sufficient: someone should be able to read the article and learn something without having to click around and see what the context of the article is.

The bottom section, which we are currently calling “annotations and associations”, suggests places to continue your journey. Here we put links to related articles on wiki, as well as links to external resources. Occasionally we also put notes on the page’s content, things like “To do: check claim about gun violence, and add link if true.”

To create the annotations section, place four or more dashes on a single line at the bottom of the page, like so:

Screenshot 2015-12-06 at 7

To the reader this will look like this:

Screenshot 2015-12-06 at 7

We’ve found that having this separate section for annotations is important to the culture of federated solutions like Wikity — it allows people a low-stress way to contribute to an article without having to touch the body of it. Annotations and Associations on your page also help guide readers to other things that might help them.

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